This area of the website is my hobby blog, it contains articles about games that I have enjoyed playing together with paining and model making articles.
Over the last few months I have been very busy painting miniatures and making terrain for'Wars of Ozz' an new fantasy mass battle game which is curruntly available on Kickstarter.
One of the terrain pieces that I wanted to make was the iconic, round Munchkin houses. After a pretty extensive internet search I concluded that nobody made a kit for these, even as 3D print files. I determined that the best way to approach making these was a combination of 3D printed parts plus traditional model making.
The hardest thing to make was going to be the round tiled roofs, however the beauty of 3D printing is that you can easily scale parts. I found some cylinders of different sizes including a Starbucks coffee cup and a pringles crisp container, measured the diameter and rescaled the 3D print files for the roofs accordingly. I found that I already had two files in my database of building parts that would do the job. The roof with the chimneys and little tower is from Printable Sceneries Wizards Tower model, and the plain roof is from Eslo's castle set.
I printed the roofs at different scales using PLA filament. While they were printing, I got to work on the main part of the houses. I started off making some doors and windows from card and plasti-card which I glued to the Starbucks cups. When dried, I then rolled out a piece of Das modelling clay and wrapped it around the cups, wetting it and pressing into position. I cut out with a sculpting tool around the raised doors and windows and added a few cracks to the walls.
When this had all dried and the roofs had printed, I glued the roofs to the cups and the cups to some Old CDs that I was using as a base using a hot glue gun.
Before adding some plaster and landscape materials to the bases I added some nice picket fence sections which are plastic castings from Renedra.
I spray undercoated the whole models and then painted with acrylic paint, using a selection of bright primary colours as favoured by the Munchkins.
I am very pleased with how these have turned out. I also 3D printed some Mushroom trees, the 3D file for those also came from 'Printable Scenery'
My next project is to make some oriental style 'Winkie' houses using 3D printed roofs and MDF box walls, so hopefully I will be able to share details of those over the next couple of weeks.
If you've not come across it yet and would like more information, Wars of Ozz is a brand new mass fantasy battle game inspired by the world of Oz, first chronicled by L Frank Baum with films by MGM and Disney! There is currently a Kickstarter running click here for details.
I do like to have variety in the miniatures that I use both for Role Playing Games and Tabletop Skirmishes.
I particularly like to be able to set the scene with groups of villagers, who are not heavily armed or in aggresive poses going about their village. This sort of figure is always a bit difficult to track down for historical or mainstream fantasy so doubly so for anthropomorphic villagers. I was very excited when I first heard about the 'Folk Rabble' set that Fireforge Games were planning as it sounded like they would be an ideal base for conversions for both lightly armed militia as well as village folk going about their daily business.
Last weekend, I had a spare half an hour so picked up a box of Folk Rabble and some 'Critter Conversion Kit' heads and tales and started work on building some 'Woodland Villagers'.
The sprue from Fireforge Games has six different bodies, four male and two female together with loads of options including hay forks, bills, scythes, axes, flails, buckets and torches and much more.
It is very easy to but together villager poses as well as militia style poses. Once I had glued the arms to the bodies with plastic glue, it was very easy to glue the metal anthropomorphic heads and tails from the 'Critter Conversion Kits' in place with a drop of superglue.
I'm looking forward to gettting these characterful models painted up and to use them in a game. I'm hoping that I'll get them painted up in the next couple of weeks, so will add some photos when I have.
In case anyone is interested in having ago, I've put together a little Woodland Villagers Conversion that contains a sprue of six models plus six random metal conversions heads and tails.
ACP164:The Albedo Miniatures games is a 28mm hard sci-fi platoon / company level skirmish games in the world of the Albedo Anthropomorphic comics.
To enable players to keep up with miniature gaming during the 2020 global pandemic, we developed a set of solo rules, which are available as a free PDF download. Click here to download them.
Mike Wilson has developed a comprehensive, planet wide campaign game. Players across the world are giving orders to formations and then fighting tabletop battles against a programmed 'intelligent' opponent and then feeding the results back into the overall campaign. Click here to take a look at (or join up to) the Albedo campaign
Last week I played my first solo ACP164 game as part of the campaign. I am playing an Independent Lapine Republic (ILR) Air Mobile Company. At the outset of the Jika campaign they used their Air Mobility to leap forward to land in and around the vitally important mineral mines and then dig in until mechanised forces could reinforce them. While their, to keep the troops frosty the Company Commander ordered some aggresive patrolling to dominate their perimeter.
This action pitted an ILR Platoon against an EDF Armoured Company. The EDF Armoured Company had two Platoons in the line and the third on rotation and each platoon initially had one section standing to at the front and rear of their position, and the third section getting their heads down in their scratchers.
The EDF Company Commander and CSM together with the rest of HQ section were located in a sandbagged position guarding a tunnel entrance to an underground command bunker.
The ILR raiding party rolled to determine their mission, which ended up being to exit off the opposite table edge. As the far side of the table was a command bunker, I decided the mission was to get inside to capture some Intel. The tunnel entrance looked like an easier route of the table than the checkpoint between the cliffs and the building.
The ILR move forward, taking some casualties from flanking fire, but utilising fire and maneuver they give as good as they take and move foward in bounds, sprinting to the next piece of cover before resting to recover.
The EDF realise that the threat is to the rear of their position, thin out the defenders at the front to get them into the firing line.
The ILR move through the wreckage of a shuttle. The last dash to the enemy position is very exposed so they wait until they can bring enough troops up to suppress with fire before the final sprint.
The EDF have a very unlucky day, especially for command casualties. Here a stray round hits their platoion commander straight in the face to incapacitate him with no cover save.
An EDF section from the front of the building redeploys to the roof in anticipation of good arcs of fire.
The EDF's bad luck continues with both the Company Commander and CSM going down from critical shots.
More and more EDF troops are depeployed to the front. Here we see a half section who had started the encounter stood down, moving into position.
The Tunnel entrance has been suppressed and the ILR Air Assault Troopers rush forward to occupy the position. The Air Assault are an elite formation who benefit from elite shooting modifiers plus helmet, torso and abdomen body armour.
The first troops move through the carnage of the defensive position and into the relative safety of the tunnel entrance.
The EDF inflict casualties as the remainder of the Air Assault Platoon cross open ground to the bunker, but eventually the bulk of the platoon are on the objective.
The EDF continue to engage the enemy in a long range firefight. The half section that redeployed onto the roof have good arcs across the battlefield.
The ILR move through the bunker complex. The EDF mount a counterattack through the main bunker entrance, but it is to little, to late.
The final results of the game were fed into the overall campaign.
Last weekend I started a first playtest game to try out the solo mechanisms built into Wars of Ozz. I've been painting up miniatures for Wars of Ozz for several weeks now so have enough painted to field a 25 point Brigade of Quadlings and Gilikins. 25 points is the standard size size for a player to command.
One of the things I really like about Wars of Ozz is the Regimental personalisation. At the start of the game you roll a D20 for each unit to determine it's personalisation, so you could have a number of units of basically the same troop type that behave slightly differently due to the character of their leader.
The Quadling Army was made up of:
Southern Infantry - 5 pts - Swift +2" to movement
Northern Infantry - 6pts - Indecisive -1" to even move rolls / +1" to odd move rolls
Tinmen - 6pts - Zealous - When fired upon will respond by charging enemy if within 10"
Medium Artillery Battery - 5pts - Impatient - Attacks 1st in melee
Lesser Pumpkin Heads - 3 pts - Lucky - reroll one combat dice
Led by the Red Witch who rolled up the Duelist skill.
The Gilikins fielded the following:
Gilikin Infantry - 5pts - Steadfast +1 to units resolve
Gilikin Cavalry on Giant Goats - 6pts - Beserkers + 1 to units melee ability
Giant Flying Apes - 8ppts - Hesitant -1 to units Elan
Light Artillery - 4pts- Beserkers + 1 to units melee ability
Talisman (magic item) - 2pts - +1 To marksmanship of Infantry
Led by Green Witch and her superior staff which extended her command radius to 18" rather than normal 12"
In this solo game, I played the Quadlings against system run Gilikins. I deployed the Quadlings on to the table and then rolled a D6 for start position of each Gilikin unit.
Unit activation uses the Double random allocation method. At the start of the game each brigade commander determines their dice pool. One dice for themselves, plus one dice for each unit within their command radius (which is normally 12"). Any unit outside their command radius has a D6 rolled for their activation number and placed by the unit, as they are to far away to be influenced by the brigade commander. The activation deck contains black 1-6 cards and red 1-6 cards plus two jokers. One side is red the other is black. In this game I decided Quadlings would be red as they carry red flags. A card is turned from activation deck, if the number corresponds to a dice in the brigade commanders dice tool, they can allocate it to a unit and that unit can then activate (move, fire or melee). If the dice has already been allocated to a unit, that unit activates at that point. Both sides potentially activate on the card, so units often activate twice in a turn. The color of the card determines who acts first (if important), so if it is a Red Four, the Quadlings would act first on it. Once both Jokers have been drawn the turn ends and the cards are reshuffled.
Turn one was all about manouvere and deployment. By the end of the turns the Quadlings had formed a credible battle line.
However their flanks are far from secure. The Gilikins Giant Flying Apes threaten their right flank and the Gilikin Cavalry their left flank. Although the cavalry are slowed by moving over rough grouns and having to cross a linear obstacle to move through the corn fields. The order of activation is going to be very important at the start of turn two to see if the Tinmen and Lesser Pumpkin Heads can get into a position to protect the Quadlings left flank.
To be continued...
The Quadlings manage to move their infantry and artillery into position to form a good defensive line.
However, it looks like the Green Witch has a pretty effective secret weapon that she is about to unleash on the Quadlings lines. She focuses her energy on getting this flying unit as far forward as she can, on her left flank to attempt a flanking attack.
The Great Flying Apes charge! Looks like it is going to be a very one sided affair.
However, 'Wars of Ozz' has some very good rules around morale and reactions. The Quadling gunners test against their 'Elan' for being charged, and roll a '1', which is as good a reaction as is possible. They manage to turn to face, shoot and will fight in the upcoming melee at 'up 1' (presumably to represent the effect of that final shot of close range grape-shot. The white dice represent the casualties inflicted. So the Apes took 6 from shooting and melee, meaning they lose a stand with 2 hits carried as stands are normally 4 hits strong. The Quadling took 2 hits, but as each stand is only 1 hit strong they lose 2 stands.
The final result of the melee is that the Quadling gunners have routed away from their gun, and the flying apes are pushed back, disordered.
Meanwhile on the Gilikins right flank, their cavalry are taking longer than they planned to cross the fields of crops (rough going) to attack the Quadlings in the flank. In fact, it looks like the advantage is being turned, as the Quadling infantry are begining to wheel into a frontal position and the Tinmen are moving up to threaten the Gilikins flank.
As this was a solo game, I recorded the 'posture' of the Gilikins each turn to see how they would react. This is the posture tracking table at the end of turn 2. The posture of the system controlled force is dependent on the balance of successes, morale and loses. At the moment their forces posture is 'normal'. For each posture state there is a table to roll on to determine how a particular unit behaves at the point it is activated.
The Quadlings manage to improve there position by moving a unit of Lesser Pumpking Heads up to reinforce the right of there line.
The Tinmen continue to move forward to threaten the right flank of the Gilikin cavalry.
The Tinmen charge home and after a couple of rounds of continuing melee the Gilikins have lost two bases, the tinmen one and both are carrying three hits over.
Eventually the Gilikin Cavalry break and fall back disordered.
The Lesser Pumpking Heads charge the Great Flying Apes. Bases in contact and bases touching bases in contact get to fight. So the Pumking heads have four bases fighting two, and eventually destroy the apes.
This is the position at the end of turn three. The Gilikin infantry have moved forward and deployed into line.
During turn four the Tinmen managed to charge the disordered Gilikin cavalry again which resulted in the survivors retreating in a rout.
The Quadling line was now perfectly deployed and in a strong position, so at this point I called it as a Quadling victory.
The game was very entertaining, the mechanisms were easy to use and delivered a decisive result and even better, in these strange times, the rules have solo, programmed opponent features designed into the core rules.
Wars of Ozz is a fantasy mass battle table top game inspired by the world imagined and chronicled by Baum in the Oz books but further developed by Russ Dunway as a brand new and unique gaming world. Further details @ www.warsofozz.com
As all our lives and social habits (including miniatures gaming) have been turned on their heads with the global Covid-19 virus pandemic, at Sally 4th we have been looking for little things that we can do to brighten our lives by facilitating some solo miniatures gaming. Over the last two or three weeks we have released a Free Sci-Fi Solo engine for Albedo ACP164, and any other sci-fi miniatures game system and a Free solo games engine for WW2 Skirmish gaming with Combat Patrol (and any other platoon level WW2 rules) These were both free downloads, and we made the rules and player aids to go with the games freely downloadable as well.
This time we are looking to go a bit further and offer something that is free and can be played by anyone even if they do not have any miniatures or terrain.
The game is Pulp Alley, which is my go to rules system for any period / genre where you have 6-12 figures per side (Pulp, Fantasy, Western, Sci-Fi etc). I have put a scenario together which can be played solo or with an opponent and is family friendly, so great for introducing your kids or your nephews and nieces to miniatures gaming.
The setting is 'swords and sorcery' and the leagues are based on the 'Toon Range' from Lucid Eye. Click here to check out the complete range of Toon Miniatures, however I have painted a set, photographed them and made some Standees that you can download, print and cut out, glue to a base and use to get you going. One league is made up of four 'Adventuers' Dwarf / Elf/ Barbarian / Wizard etc. and the other league is made up of the Newt Lord, Frog Prince and Newt Warriors.
The terrain that I used as a mixture of 3D printed items, a resin stone ruin and some of the Sally 4th Lattice Work bridges, that you can check out here. However I have photographed all of the terrain elements and put them in a PDF file that you can download, print and cut out.
Pulp Alley rules and cards are available as free introductory downloads, if you like the game and want to see what other supplements, cards and scenarios are available, click here to visit our Pulp Alley Store.
If you do not have the right dice, Pulp Alley uses D6, D8, D10 there are lots of Free Apps to run on your smart phone to provide any dice you could think of. I use an App on my IPhone called 'Mighty Dice'.
22nd April 2020: I've just added the Part 2 video that takes us through the rest off the game.
Links to Free Downloads:
I’ve been painting miniatures and making model kits for over 40 years now and have used a lot of paints starting with Airfix enamels, then artists and Games Workshops acrylic paints, Colour Party, Coat’d Arms, Foundry before settling on Acrylic paints in bottles from Vallejo, Army Painter and Instar. During this time I’ve tried a whole host of different storage systems from show boxes, biscuit tins and file boxes to commercial storage from Games Workshop and our own Sally 4th racks.
I’ve recently been encouraged to tidy up my painting desk, and decided to take that opportunity to design and manufacture what I felt was the perfect solution (for my needs). So this is what I came up with. I thought that while I was tidying and sorting out paint storage, it would be a good opportunity to improve the lighting at my painting table. I used to use a double spot light on a stand. This was OK but tended to cast a shadow, so I've replaced it with a LED arc. The Arc it's self is 15mm plastic plumbing pipe, brought cheaply from the local builders merchant. I brought 1 10 metre length of LED's with a transformer and dimmer from Amazon for £16. I used a bit of Gaffer Tape at each end to hold the LED strip in position and then just wound it round the piping. A short length of 21mm plastic piping was attached to each leg using a cable tie. The ends of the 15mm pipe are held in the larger pipe. It took less than 15 minutes to put together and provides me with dimmable shadow free lighting.
The paint storage modules hold 15 bottles of paint and underneath the paint rack is a sturdy draw with a clear Perspex front so I can see what is inside and don’t have to label the drawer or remember what I have put where. The modules have been designed with ultra-strong rare earth magnets to hold them together into a solid group. Finally the material used is top grade 3mm MDF, rather than the flimsier 2mm as this makes the glued joints so much stronger.
The corners have been filled with a tool tidy. This also comes with rare earth magnets and there is a choice of 2 types of holder to fit on the top, one designed for paint brushes and the other designed for files and similar tools.
I've added the three products that I have designed to the website in case anyone else is interested in using the same soloution for organising their work space. Click here to take a look
Over the last few months I have been working on a pair of armies for fantasy tabletop gaming with Saga Age of Magic, Thud & Blunder and Frostgrave themed around the Redwall Abbey series of fantasy books. I the world of Redwall the forces of Evil are often a verminous hoard of rats with the occasional ferret or stout for variety and the forces of good are the Redwall Abbey mice together with woodland allies, often in the form of military hares from the 'Long Patrol'.
In my last hobby blog, we had taken a look at the start of my Redwall Mice so this time we are looking at the Rats of Gabool the Wild, notorious king of all sea rats. All of the miniatures (apart from the rat swarms that are 3D printed), are conversions of platic or metal 28mm miniatures using Albedo Critter Conversion kits
Saga Age of Magic is the ruleset that I am using for unit based battles. At the moment Gabools hoard is a 6pt Saga Army consisting of a Warlord, Lieutenant, Sorceror, 2 points of Hearthguard, 1 point of Warriors, 1 point of Levy and 2 creatures represented by the rat swarms.
The warbands characters (Gabbol the Wild Searat King, Crooked Tooth his trusty Lieutenant and Singed Fur caster of wild magic)
Gabbol is a conversion from the Crusader Miniatures Sea Dogs pack.
Singed Fur was built using pieces from the excellent Frostgrave Wizards plastic box set.
Crooked Tooth also started out as a casting from the Crusader Miniatures Sea DOgs pack.
I have choosen to represent the Hearthguard warrior elite in my warband with figures armed with two handed weapons. The bodies and arms are from Frostgrave Soldiers and Ghost Archipelago crew plastic kits. The heads are Critter Conversion Kit Rats with Conical Helms and Rats with Cloaked Hoods.
The unit of warriors are all built from Ghost Archipelago plastic crewmen as these have a real swashbuckling, seafaring feel to them.
Although in the army lists Levy are listed as being armed with bows, thematically I sa the levy as oar slaves, living in cramped conditions so the sling seemed a natural weapon choice. In the game it will 'count as' a bow. These figures are based on Gripping Beast Dark Age Warriors plastic parts with the addition of rat heads from critter conversion packs.
Lastly we have two bases worth of creatures represented by rat swarms. These are the bilge rats from the pirate ships. I found a 3D file for a rat swarm and changed it's size so that it printed as a 40mm diameter base.
All of the other miniatures have had their bases snipped off and have been glued onto Sally 4th Clear Perspex Bases.
For many years I have been a huge fan of the 'Redwall Abbey' series of fantasy stories written by the late Brian Jacques and as a lifelong gamer it struck me that the adventures of these plucky woodland characters would make a great tabletop battle. There are of course some excellent anthropomorphic fantasy miniatures available in the marketplace such as the Oathsworn range for 'Burrows & Badgers'. Burrows & Badgers is a fantastic game, which I play and have covered in earlier blogs, however, I am also looking for a mass battle game where I can field a whole army of 'Redwall Mice' to face off against a hoard of vermin from 'Clunnies Horde'. To do this I needed to be able to model 40 - 100 mice and for them to have a wide variation of pose and armament.
I've made a short You Tube video about the conversions.
I had also made a start on converting some mice using the metal Copplestone Castings Halfling range. These had turned out really well, the height difference between the halflings and humans translates very well to mice and rats.
At the time that I was starting the project I heard on the wargames grapevine that a new miniatures company, Wargames Atlantic had announced that they were going to be developing a multipose plastic box set of Halfling Militia. I could not believe my luck, as this was exactly what I needed to build the bulk of a 'Redwall' army with the variety of weapons and poses that I was hoping for. I wrote to Wargames Atlantic and asked if they could send me a box to play around with, which a month ago they kindly did.
There are a good batch of wargames rule sets that are going to be suitable for fighting mass fantasy battles using 'Redwall' style armies including Dragon Rampart, Thud & Blunder, the soon to be released Feudal Patrol and Saga Age of Magic. I decided to start off planning the army based on Saga. The Wargames Atlantic Halfling Militia box contains 40 miniatures. The plan is to make the following units.
I've started off with the levy armed with bows. Bodies, arms and quivers are from the Halfling Militia set and the heads and tails are metal 'Critter Conversion Kits' from the Albedo ACP164 range.
The Halfing Militia set is great value at £25 for 40 miniatures.
Each sprue has 5 bodies in different poses plus a choice of arms and halfling heads. The weapon options are bow, sling, halberd, pike & sword.
In the Albedo Critter Conversion range there are 3 variations of mouse head, bare head, cloaked head and metal helmet.
The Mice conversion pack costs £8 and contains 1 Halfling Militia Sprue and a pack with a random assortment of five of the 3 types of Mice heads and tails, giving you all the pieces that you need to make five mighty mice warriors.
... and because someone always asks, the figures have all been remounted on to Sally 4th clear perspex bases so that they blend in with the terrain they are standing on.
Last night I got together with Doug and James to play 'The Arctic Rescue'. This was the Pulp Alley scenario of the month back in December 2018 and features in the Pulp Alley Scenario Book.
During a Top Secret test flight an aircraft carrying an innovative new bomb sight veers off course and crashes into the ice pack somewhere in the Arctic Circle. Several organisations and governments send teams to search the wreckage in the hope of rescuing the pilot and the inventor and recovering the bombsight and development notes.
The game was set out on a 3' square table, made up of nine 1' square Terra-Former tiles. Four of the tiles had crevasses modelled into them, these looked pretty realistic, the ability to model features below the surface is one of the big benefits of using Terra-Former tiles. The central tile had some broken ice flow modelled on and the other tiles were modelled as featureless snow and ice.. I used some WH40K crashed spacecraft terrain to represent the wreckage. As the terrain pieces were quite large a counter was placed to mark the point that you needed to be close to, to search the wreckage.
The 3 teams deployed within 6" of their selected corners. Due to a snowstorm, visibility was reduced to 12" and to make matters worse the whole table counted as dangerous terrain, so a peril had to be overcome if you moved faster than 6" in a turn. In the first turn I tried to get my Leader Andropov and his sidekick Carlos moving fast to be within 6" of the search area for turn 2. Unfortunately, they must have encountered some thin ice, as they failed to pull it off.
Eventually my Leader Andropov does get close enough to search. Instead of using the standard 5 card rewards deck, there is a special set of cards for the scenario. The scenario card deck contains cards for the plot points but also a whole stack of environmental nightmares such as the pack ice breaking up, becoming disorientated in a whiteout etc.
One of James’s Ally’s, Barker was the first to search the wreckage, rather than finding a clue however he drew the 'Disorientated' card. At the time this felt like a nuisance as the random D8 move moved him 8" towards the centre of the table, however it was to prove a blessing in disguise.
Doug’s leader, Captain Hendry was the second to search the wreckage, he also did not discover a clue. His scenario card announced that the Ice Pack was breaking up (must be first onset of global warming) and that anywhere within 12" of the table edge was now perilous terrain, meaning that a perilous challenge needed to be overcome every time you moved into or activated within 12" of the table edge. Barker was now rather pleased that he had moved randomly to the centre of the table.
As leagues attempted to move towards safe ground various exchanges of gunfire broke out as characters came into visibility range in the central area.
Captain Hendry continues searching the wreckage and eventually finds a clue about the location of the Pilot.
The pilot is placed on the table D6 inches in a random direction from the wreckage marker.
In this scenario, the environment was certainly proving to be more dangerous than opposing leagues. Suggestions were made that co-operation might be in the best interests of all as more and more team members lapsed into hypothermia induced unconsciousness. However, the co-operative approach was not popular, so constant sniping added to the perils of being out on the Icepack.
Captain Hendrie’s team had the most success and were declared the winners having recovered the Journal and the Pilot...
...but in truth the real winner was the cold and the shifting ice pack. By the end of the game the majority of characters had suffered either permanent or temporary damage from the environment.
This was another great game of Pulp Alley and the first game for James. It was definitely one of the hardest scenarios we have tried, although we were very unlucky to draw the card that made the ice pack start breaking up so early in the game.
We are all looking forward to more Pulp Alley adventure very soon.
Links for further details:
Over the Christmas break, I had some fun building four anthropomorphic female mages for use in my Frostgrave, Saga and Thud and Blunder Warbands
Pictures above is Freda (a Dachshund and 'The Mouse'
The figures are made using parts from the excellent Frostgrave Plastic Wizards 2 box set combined with metal anthropomorphic heads and tails from Albedo Critter Conversion Kits.
Pictures on the bridge are Gwaynor the Fox and Matilda the Badger (I do love that pupeteer arm from the Frostgrave plastic wizard set)
The figures are all mounted on Sally 4th clear plastic bases, so prior to assembly I clipped the plastic bases off using Games Workshop side clippers.
Arms were glued to bodies first using plastic glue.
A small hole was then drilled in neck and back to take the locating pins for the animal heads and tails.
Pictured Below Albedo Critter Conversion Kits. Each pack contains 5 x animal heads and tails for conversions.
The figures were then primed, painted with acrlics and glued onto the clear bases.
Links for further details.